10th Grade New York

Apartheid

This inquiry leads students through an investigation of the efforts made by individuals, organizations, and institutions that eventually resulted in the end of apartheid in 1994. By investigating the compelling question “What ended apartheid?” students focus on the policies of apartheid and consider the various endeavors to end this system of racial separation and constitutional prejudice in South Africa. In investigating the work of Nelson Mandela, South African organizations, and international institutions, students create an illustrated timeline that showcases the breadth of the struggle to end apartheid and begin to evaluate the reasons that apartheid officially ended. Students’ illustrated timelines could take any form and might include photographs, quotes, textual evidence, and/or personal annotations.

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Compelling Question:

What Ended Apartheid?

Staging the Question: Students examine various maps of the “homelands” in South Africa and discuss the implications of, and challenges to, this physical separation.
1

Supporting Question What was apartheid?

Formative Task Create an illustrated timeline of apartheid policies and write a definition for apartheid.

Sources Source A: Description and photo of the Pass Laws
Source B: Description and map of the bantustans, or “homelands”
Source C: Description and photo of forced removal efforts

2

Supporting Question What efforts were made by Nelson Mandela to end apartheid?

Formative Task Add Nelson Mandela’s efforts to end apartheid to the illustrated timeline and write a two-sentence, evidence-based summary of them.

Sources Source A: Excerpt from Mandela’s statement from the dock at the opening of the defense case in the Rivonia Trial
Source B: Video What efforts were made by Nelson Mandela to end Apartheid?
Source C: Excerpt from “Nelson Mandela, the Man Who Brought South Africa Out of Apartheid, Dies at 95”

3

Supporting Question What efforts were made by groups within South Africa to end apartheid?

Formative Task Add the efforts of others in South Africa to end apartheid to the illustrated timeline and write a two-sentence summary using evidence.

Sources Source A: Excerpt from “A brief history of the African National Congress”
Source B: Excerpt from “Our History, Standing for Human Rights—The Black Sash, 1955–2014” and photo
Source C: Excerpt from “A Brief Organizational History of the South African Students Organization (SASCO) and the Student Movement”

4

Supporting Question What efforts were made by international bodies to end apartheid?

Formative Task Add international bodies’ efforts to end apartheid to the illustrated timeline and write a two-sentence summary using evidence.

Sources Source A: Excerpt from address by Nelson Mandela to the conference of the Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa
Source B: Excerpt from United States Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act
Source C: Excerpt from “United Nations: Partner in the Struggle against Apartheid”

Summative Performance Task

Argument: What ended apartheid? Construct an argument (e.g., detailed outline, poster, essay) that addresses the compelling question using specific claims and relevant evidence from historical sources while acknowledging competing views.
Extension: The year 2019 will mark the 25th anniversary of the end of apartheid. Hold a class discussion on what should be done to celebrate the event, including who and what should be remembered.

Taking Informed Action

Understand: Research gains and pains of life in South Africa since apartheid officially ended in 1994.
Assess: Weigh the extent to which the South African government, citizens, or other organizations are successfully responding to one of the challenges of life in post-apartheid South Africa.
Act: Using the platform of “Mandela Day,” create a class position statement outlining the actions citizens in the United States could take to help respond to one challenge of life in post-apartheid South Africa.