In this inquiry, students examine the extent to which the Chinese and Romans had knowledge of and interacted with one another. Knowledge of one another accumulated over time, and a long history of interaction was part of the process that led to the establishment of regular trade and cultural relations along the Silk Road. This inquiry is about the historical antecedent to the Silk Road. The compelling question asks, “Did Chinese and Romans know each other?” Although this is a yes/no question, the complexity lies in between those poles. Students will likely find themselves answering “maybe” and needing to explain why.